Arthrodesis fuses the 2 bones that form a joint. There is no longer movement in the joint after the procedure. One or more related joints may be done at the same time.
Arthrodesis of Foot and Ankle
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Reasons for Procedure
Ankle and foot arthrodesis is done to relieve disabling ankle or foot pain, or deformity caused by poorly healed fractures, arthritis, damaged cartilage, infections, or developmental defects.
The procedure results in pain relief in most patients.
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have an arthrodesis, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
- Failure of the joint to fuse
- Poor alignment of the joint, causing pain and/or an altered gait
- Need for repeat surgery
- Nerve damage
Before your procedure, talk to your doctor about ways to manage factors that may increase your risk of complications such as:
- Chronic disease such as diabetes or obesity
- The use of certain medications
What to Expect
Prior to Procedure
Several nonsurgical methods will be tried to correct your problem before choosing surgery. These may include medications, injections, special shoes, or types of physical therapy. You will have a thorough evaluation to determine your overall health and any risk factors.
Talk to your doctor about your medicines. You may be asked to stop taking some medicines up to 1 week before the procedure.
Do not eat or drink anything after midnight the day before your surgery unless told otherwise by your doctor.
Arrange for help at home after returning from the hospital.
Your doctor may choose:
Description of the Procedure
Arthroscopic surgery uses tiny incisions. A thin arthroscope will be inserted through 1 of the incisions. It will have a tiny camera that will be attached to a television. Other thin instruments will be inserted into the joint through the tiny incisions to perform the surgery. There are many ways to secure the 2 bones together so that they no longer move in relation to one another. Long screws or bone grafts may be used.
You will have a tight bandage strapped around your thigh to shut off circulation during surgery. This will not harm your leg.
In some cases, the doctor may need to switch to open surgery. A long incision will be made on your foot and ankle to do the surgery.
Immediately After Procedure
Your lower leg will be in a rigid cast and elevated after surgery. You will be offered pain medication.
How Long Will It Take?
About 2-5 hours
How Much Will It Hurt?
There will be no pain during the procedure. Afterwards, there will be some discomfort. Talk to your doctor about medication to help manage discomfort.
Average Hospital Stay
You may be able to go home in 2-4 days if you do not have any complications.
During your stay, the hospital staff will take steps to reduce your chance of infection such as:
- Washing their hands
- Wearing gloves or masks
- Keeping your incisions covered
There are also steps you can take to reduce your chances of infection such as:
- Washing your hands often and reminding visitors and healthcare providers to do the same
- Reminding your healthcare providers to wear gloves or masks
- Not allowing others to touch your incisions
It will take up to 4 months to heal and solidly fuse the joint(s). During that time, you will be in a cast.
Some people may be able to wear ordinary shoes while others may need specially fitted footwear.
Call Your Doctor
After you leave the hospital, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:
- Bleeding or discharge from your incision(s)—This may show up as staining on your cast.
- Signs of infection, including fever and chills
- Increasing or severe pain that is not relieved by your pain medication
- Cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, or severe nausea and vomiting
- Numbness, tingling, or discoloration in the foot
In case of an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
University of Washington School of Medicine http://www.orthop.washington.edu
Department of Orthopaedics—The University of British Columbia http://www.orthosurgery.ubc.ca
Updated September 2008. Accessed March 2, 2015.
Daniels TR. Ankle arthrodesis. Canadian Orthopaedic Association website. Available at:
Accessed March 2, 2015.
Foot pain—differential diagnosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
Updated April 29, 2014. Accessed March 2, 2015.
Last Updated: 2/7/2014